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11

**Use of letters to denote numbers**

**LITERALS The letters which are used to represent or replace numbers are known as literal numbers or simply literals.**

**Addition of literals**

**Commutativity : For any two literals `a and b` we have `a+b=b+a`**

**Associative property and identity property of addition of literals**

**Subtraction of literals**

**Multiplication of literals**

**Commutativity : For any two literals `a and b` we have `ab=ba`**

**Associativity : For any three literals `a b and c` we have `(ab)c=a(bc)`**

**Identity : For any literals a we have `a xx 1 = a = 1 xx a`.**